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Genus of 51 species of conifers, mainly native to the mountainous areas of North and central America, Europe, Asia and North Africa. They are usually large conical trees, from which several dwarf cultivars have been developed. Evergreen plants with single needles in a two-rowed or spiral arrangement, with a flat cross section. Abies are different from Spruces (Picea) in that each needle features a couple of white lines on its undersurface, whereas the needles of Spruces have rhombic cross-sections and have no white lines. Firs feature characteristical resin-scented leaves, Their cones are erect and cylindrical and disintegrate when mature.
Abies borisii regis
Branches grow in regular whorls. Very slow growth in small age.
Great requirements in water and air humidity. They grow in neutral or slightly acid, light, well-drained soils.
Trees are planted alone or in clusters and dwarf cultivars are planted in rock gardens. Large plants are used in Christmas decorations.
No pruning is required save perhaps in rare occasions, only to restore shape and to remove the occasional double leader.
Typical species are propagated by seeds that germinate easily in sprin at 15-20 οC after a 2-3 month cold stratification. Propagate cultivars by semi-woody cuttings in summer and early autumn. Seed-born plants take more than 10 years to reach 1.5-2 meters in height (3 years for the first 3 cm).
Subject to root rot such as Armelaria melea and Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Hybrid between the silver fir and the Greek fir, its features are in many respects intermediate between the two species. It is encountered amidst these species from Central Greece to Northern Greece.
Tall pyramidal tree with green foliage, that features slightly acute or concave-tipped needles and slightly resinous cones.
Relatively dry-tolerant species, compared to other fir trees.