Roses are the most widely cultivated plants in gardens and parks, and the plants with the longest horticultural history, since they've been grown in every part of the world for centuries. It is the national plant of the USA and of England. What's more, they are the universal symbol of love and beauty. When you offer a rose, bear in mind that certain rose colors carry specific symbolic meanings:
Latin name: Rosa "Sophys Rose"
Pink: gentle feelings of love and friendship
Dark Pink: Gratefulness and appreciation
Light Pink: Admiration, sympathy
White: Innocence, friendship, respect
Yellow: Jealousy and infidelity
Black: Devotion, adoration
The genus contains more than 100 species, all native to the North hemisphere. They are deciduous shrubs and climbing plants with compound, often spiny green leaves, with spiny stems. Typical species usually bear pink or white flowers with 5 lobed petals and 5 sepals. The developed cultivars feature coloured, often fragrant flowers from may to November.
Roses are divided according to the bloom form and the flower shape in the following divisions:
Large-flowered bush (Hybrid Tea), Cluster-flowered bush (Floribunda), Polyantha, Climber, Miniature, Ground-cover, Arboraceous and Pendulous-branched.
Remove overmature flowers during growth period, cutting a part of the stem to the first or second five-petaled. Remember to remove wild stems that grow below the grafting point. Prune in late winter, before the unfolding of new buds, as follows:
Shrubs: Hard, rejuvenescent pruning. Leave 4-5 strong, young stems, radiating from the center of the plant, with a length of 30 to 50 cm (3-5 buds).
Arboraceous varieties: same pruning directions as in the shrubby varieties, from the grafting mark and above. Climbing varieties: remove the dried branches and prune the secondary shoots, leaving 4-5 cm. from the leading branch.
Miniatures: remove all withered flowers and prune away the weak branches. The remaining branches must be pruned up to the 1/3 of their height.
Ground covering-varieties: prune by cutting to the 2/3 of their height.
Pendent-branched varieties: remove withered flowers and prune away any weak branches.
Roses are sensitive plants, subject mainly to the following diseases: Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa, appears as a white powdery growth on rose leaves.
Downy mildew: dark, brown, irregular shaped spots, infecting mainly the young leaves on their midrib.
Rose rust: caused by the fungus Phragmidium mucronatum. Symptoms: orange spores in the lower surface of leaves.
Black spot: caused by high relative humidity and the symptoms are rounded spots on the lower leaves, which later turn yellow and fall of. Caused by the fungus Diplocarpon Rosae.
Most fungal diseases appear in conditions of high humidity and temperature. After the disease is visible, its spread can be minimized through pruning and use of fungicides. It is a good idea to start preventative fungicidal spray programin early spring.
Tetranychus urticae : tiny insects infecting the lower surface of the leaves, causing leaves to appear rusty.
Aphids and greenflies : tiny sap-feeding insects that dry up the plants juices from its young leaves and shoots, thus causing the leaves and buds to shrivel up fold over.
The bush varieties are planted in groups, the climbing ones in pergolas and fences, miniatures in flower pots and rock gardens, the ground-covering for covering the ground, while the tree and pendent-branched varieties are planted alone. They are also grown for producing cut flowers. Roses are also used in perfumery. Culinary uses of roses include spices, syrups and sweet confectioning.
Propagation: from late autumn to early spring, mainly by grafting and less by cuttings. Grafted plants are most adjustable in various types of soil and more resistant over time.
Grandiflora cultivar with fuchsia-coloured flowers.